# Magnetohydrodynamics - Space Weather & Atmospheric currents

#### GatheringKnowledge

Hello! I would like to hear some professional opinion about a model of interactions between magnetosphere and atmosphere. I'm not a professional physicist, but I did everything, to make it fully consistent with officialy approved knowledge. I will provide you the links to publications and articles, which I've used to support my statements. Mechanism of my model uses the laws of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and is based on multiple scientific data, like: SWMF+RCM magnetosphere/ionosphere simulations, readings from THEMIS satellites and ground magnetometers, just as weather maps and forecasts. My model has the potenial, to revolutionize our understanding of connections between meteorology and heliophysics.

Here's link to a movie, which explains the basic mechanics of my model:
Electromagnetic Universe - Magnetism & Atmospheric Currents

And here are 2 more, which explain it in details:
Space Weather Affecting Climate On Earth - Magnetic Reconnections And Plasma Outflows
Climate Changes & Geomagnetic Instability - Space Weather And Atmosphere Interactions

It's funny, that despite the fact, that MHD seems to be one the most functional branches of physics - both, theroretical and practical ones - there's not too many scientists interested in it. I'm pretty sure, that not all of you heard about such terms, like: magnetic reconnection or flux transfer event (fte). Since those processes are playing a key role in my model, here are the definitions from wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_reconnection

Magnetic reconnection is a physical process occurring in highly conducting plasmas in which the magnetic topology is rearranged and magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration. Magnetic reconnection occurs on timescales intermediate between slow resistive diffusion of the magnetic field and fast Alfvénictimescales.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flux_transfer_event

A flux transfer event (FTE) occurs when a magnetic portal opens in the Earth's magnetosphere through which high-energy particles flow from the Sun. This connection, while previously thought to be permanent, has been found to be brief and very dynamic. The European Space Agency's four Cluster spacecraft and NASA's five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these FTEs, measuring their dimensions and identifying the particles that are transferred between the magnetic fields.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flux_tube

A flux tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the field is perpendicular to the normal vector. Both the cross-sectional area of the tube and the field contained may vary along the length of the tube, but the magnetic flux is always constant.

Ok, this was just the introduction. I want to explain all the details of my model in next posts. For now I will paste here the links to publications, which I will use in my explanations:

Clouds blown by the solar wind
Paper suggests solar magnetic influence on Earth’s atmospheric pressure
influence of Solar Magnetic Sector Structure on Terrestrial Atmospheric Vorticity
The interplanetary magnetic field influences mid-latitude surface atmospheric pressure
Solar Activity and Earth's Climate
THE CURIOUS CASE OF EARTH'S LEAKING ATMOSPHERE
Magnetic field changes

#### benit13

I have some basic feedback for the moment, but later I can try to catch up on some reading regarding solar system magnetic systems and update you on it. I studied a little bit of this kind of stuff during my degree a long time ago.

Hello! I would like to hear some professional opinion about a model of interactions between magnetosphere and atmosphere. I'm not a professional physicist, but I did everything, to make it fully consistent with officialy approved knowledge.
No problem. You've come to the right place!

I will provide you the links to publications and articles, which I've used to support my statements.
Most of the links you have provided are to YouTube videos and wikipedia. Although there's nothing particularly wrong with this, better references are things like journal papers and textbooks, since they are peer reviewed, high quality publications. Wikipedia tends to be good quality because it's community-corrected, but it can sometimes have errors or be out of date, and YouTube is pretty much the pits.

So, if you want your models to be up to date and informed, you'll need to hit journal papers. It can be difficult for amateur physicists or industry professionals because some journals have egregious paywalls on their content, so knowing someone in academia who can hook you up with papers is always good.

Mechanism of my model uses the laws of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and is based on multiple scientific data, like: SWMF+RCM magnetosphere/ionosphere simulations, readings from THEMIS satellites and ground magnetometers, just as weather maps and forecasts. My model has the potenial, to revolutionize our understanding of connections between meteorology and heliophysics.
So... first off, a basic no-no, never make big claims without big evidence.. If you start saying things like "It has potential to revolutionize <insert thing here>", it's a massive indication you have no idea what you're talking about or doing and most people will stop listening to you immediately. Here on the forum, we've heard dozens of people say the xact same thing and they all turn out to be coming up with silly, uninformed nonsense.

Be humble, do your work as honestly as you can and do your best to make the arguments you're working on rock solid. In fact, one of the hardest things to learn as a scientists is to admit where you're wrong and adapt accordingly. We've all had to do it and, in some cases, we even publish corrections. It's much more embarrassing to keep chugging at a theory that simply doesn't work rather than admit that some of your publications are out of date because something else turned out to work better.

If you continue your studies and your work turns out not to be "revolutionary", than it doesn't matter because you're still making a contribution to the field and people will still care about your contribution, reference your publications and recognise your name. If it turns out to be revolutionary, than great, but never claim it... let it speak for itself.

The images are fine... just sort of cartoon drawings of trajectories of charged particles along field lines, so it seems fairly standard stuff. For publications it can sometimes be hard to draw good quality diagrams, so the tips I have for those are just to keep it simple. Simple graphs and line drawings are always better than colourful artistic depictions in relaying information about specific functions, curves, relationships, data or any other quantitative information. Let the artists worry about the pretty stuff!

It's funny, that despite the fact, that MHD seems to be one the most functional branches of physics - both, theroretical and practical ones - there's not too many scientists interested in it.
This is not true. There's plenty of research groups in Europe alone that investigate MHD. I attended a post-graduate conference at Keele University about 10 years ago and there was a whole room filled with people exclusively researching MHD applied to the Earth's magnetopshere, although some also investigated the Sun's atmosphere. There's also a research group in Manchester that looks at MHD, but they're more interested in the solar dynamo problem and magnetic reconnection.

Magnetic reconnection is a physical process occurring in highly conducting plasmas in which the magnetic topology is rearranged and magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration. Magnetic reconnection occurs on timescales intermediate between slow resistive diffusion of the magnetic field and fast Alfvénictimescales.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flux_transfer_event

A flux transfer event (FTE) occurs when a magnetic portal opens in the Earth's magnetosphere through which high-energy particles flow from the Sun. This connection, while previously thought to be permanent, has been found to be brief and very dynamic. The European Space Agency's four Cluster spacecraft and NASA's five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these FTEs, measuring their dimensions and identifying the particles that are transferred between the magnetic fields.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flux_tube

A flux tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the field is perpendicular to the normal vector. Both the cross-sectional area of the tube and the field contained may vary along the length of the tube, but the magnetic flux is always constant.

<images>

Ok, this was just the introduction. I want to explain all the details of my model in next posts. For now I will paste here the links to publications, which I will use in my explanations:

Clouds blown by the solar wind
Paper suggests solar magnetic influence on Earth’s atmospheric pressure
influence of Solar Magnetic Sector Structure on Terrestrial Atmospheric Vorticity
The interplanetary magnetic field influences mid-latitude surface atmospheric pressure
Solar Activity and Earth's Climate
THE CURIOUS CASE OF EARTH'S LEAKING ATMOSPHERE
Magnetic field changes
I don't have time to click all the URLs and read all the information, but from first glance this stuff seems fine, like a recap of some of the stuff I studied at University. I have my textbook on EM handy as well.

I will be interested in reading more about the state of the art regarding MHD and magnetic reconnection. I look forward to your next few posts!

#### Woody

While you may be correct that MHD is perhaps not currently regarded as the most fashionable area of study,
There are plenty of physicists looking into exactly the features you describe.

I freely admit I am just an armchair observer of the physics world,
however I have seen several articles in scientific and astronomical magazines describing the current research, such as Themis, in this area.

I am sure that the people at the Joint European Torus at Culham in Oxfordshire
are also deeply involved in such studies.

One of the key problems at JET is maintaining a stable plasma,
As has been observed by Themis the interchange between magnetic field and plasma tends to be extremely dynamic.

It is probable that there are possibilities for fruitful cross-overs of ideas between the Fusion Reactor studies and Solar Wind interaction studies.

#### Woody

It being a slow evening, I had a glance at some of the papers you linked to.

They are pretty much outside my realm, but seem to indicate notable interactions between the atmosphere, and both terrestrial and solar magnetosphere;
and that fairly clear correlations can be found between these interactions and terrestrial weather patterns.

As I noted in my last post I am an armchair observer of science, and I have noted a light scattering of articles, over the years, in the scientific magazines I subscribe to, relating to this subject.

Interestingly the earlier articles seemed slightly dismissive, the correlation was perhaps a bit vague, and no causative mechanism was put forward.
However, the more recent articles seem to be becoming more positive, I guess that with more and better data the correlations are becoming more clearly defined.

The causative mechanisms though seem to remain vague and rather speculative.

1 person

#### GatheringKnowledge

Thanks for your response! Sorry, that it took me so long... I've posted similar threads on many other science forums, but this one is for now the only one, where my ideas weren't treated, like somekind of pseudo scientific heresy - I really appreciate it...

You need to know, that I'm not a professional scientist and when it comes to physics, my education is at high school level. Plasma physics and space weather are in fact just a kind of hobby to me. I've learned everything only by myself and there wasn't anyone, to tell me, if my ideas are scientifically correct or not. I began researching those things around 6 years ago and just a year ago, I came to the conclusion, that I have all, what is needed, to turn a part of my research into official science - I have all the necessary sources, to support the theoretical base of my model, I have a mechanism, which is consistent with mainstream sience and I have a lot of data, which proves, that the model works in practice. All what I need right now, is to write it down in the form of a research paper and look for a scientific journal to publish it. Problem is, that not only I completely lack any experience, when it comes to writing scientific papers, but english isn't my native language, so I can't be 100% sure, that my text won't pass through the process of publication . As for now, I've managed, to write down the introduction (or at least some part of it) and I would love to hear, if it is acceptable for someone, who is a professional physicist. I don't know the proper format, to write down the sources, which I use, so I simply pasted links to them... Tell me please, if there's any aspect of my model, which is not consistent with mainstream science?

Relation between the space environment and terrestial weather patterns is a field of extensive research since the dawn of space exploration in the middle of XX Century. However, during this time, our understanding regarding the possible influence of solar activity on climate, didn't change too much. Since last couple years, there was a gradual regress in the development of a coupled heliosphere-atmosphere model, as multiple studies, published more than 50 years ago, became mostly forgotten by the modern science. As for today, the general consensus is, that the impact of space weather on lower atmosphere is minimal and it can be ignored in most of meteorological and climate models. In modern day climatology, the only factor, which is taken into account, when it comes to solar forcing of climate, is the radiative energy input. Accoring to mainstream science, weather patterns can't be affected by the space weather, since lower atmosphere is isolated from space environment by the ionosphere, which cuts out all currents of solar wind plasma and doesn't allow to reach the surface level. On the other hand, importance of solar activity can't be denied, when it comes to the condition of atmosphere at highest levels. However, even if the influence of geomagnetic field on the chemistry and behavior of particles of atmosphere at high altitudes is well known, there's still no working model of relations between high and low layers in atmosphere. Luckily, during last couple decades things started to change and it began from a study, which proved, that there is a relation between cosmic rays and the density of cloud layer [https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fecd/95e68d09b39646295f74a93fa08de7aa0ec1.pdf]. During recent years, many scientists tried to use the knowledge of such relation, to explain the interconnection of solar variability and climate, but most of climatologists agree, that influence of cosmic rays is too small, to matter as a factor in the climate forcing. And yet, for some reason, everyone seems to ignore facts, which were established many years ago and prove a much direct connection between the space environment and atmospheric circulation. As far, as since 1973, there is enough evidence, to prove that orientation of imf has a measurable infuence on sea level pressure [https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19760007443.pdf] and that crossing of a heliospheric sector boundary affects the atmospheric vorticity [https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730022041.pdf]. A possible reason, as for why those factors still aren't taken into account in modern climatology, is the fact, that up until today no one couldn't identify any process, responsible for those dependencies. Only couple years ago this subject was brought back to the public attention, thanks to a study called: "The interplanetary magnetic field influences mid-latitude surface atmospheric pressure" [ShieldSquare Captcha], where it was proposed, that Interplanetary electric field might play an important role in the process which connects IMF By component with atmospheric circulation at lower latitudes.

As for today, this is everything, when it comes to that part of my future publication, which I hope to be be acceptable by professional physicists...(?)

And this is, what I would like, to be included in this work:
I want to begin with couple well known facts
1. Geomagnetic field penetrates the ionized layer of atmosphere and it's field line act as guidelines for currents in the process of energy transfer
2. Oxygen is paramagnetic. It's logical, that since it makes around 30% of atmosphere, air masses will be in some degree affected by the geomagnetic field.
3. Electric charge isn't the only property, which can induce the flow of a current. In lower atmosphere, currents are created by air masses with temperature and humidity differential.
4. Due to Lorentz force, direction of a current is affected by the presence of external magnetic field.
5. Condition of geomagnetic field depends in big part on the orientation and magnitude of IMF
6. Those 5 above is just enough, to conclude, that geomagnetic field has a direct influence on atmospheric pressure.

Later I will support everything, what is being stated below with proper links...

My first goal is to show, how Bx and By IMF components affect the magnetosphere, using a SWMF+RCM simulation, which I've ordered in CCMC

There are however some problems
1. This simulation doesn't include the variability of IMF Bx. It's value remains constant (-3nT) throughout entire time period
2. There's very few papers regarding the influence of Bx IMF component on the shape of magnetosphere. I've found only this image, which still doesn't give the full view of this subject, as the depicted reconnection is not taking place on equatorial plane

Science is focusing mainly on the Bz component and reconnections associated with southward oriented IMF, as those are the key factors, when it comes to geomagnetic activity. However, not so much is known about reconnections associated with By and Bx components. In the difference to effects of negative Bz, which cause mostly a strong global response of geomagnetic field and increase the Auroral Electrojet Index, Bx and By reconnections cause weaker an local disturbances at lower geographic latitudes. Bx and By are also used to define the polarity of sectors in heliosphere - and it was proven, that crossings of IMF sector boundaries have a measurable effect on atmospheric vorticity.

Then I want to discuss, how the Bx and By IMF components define the current direction in the interplanetary electric field (IEF). In the process of energy transfer between the IMF and magnetosphere, orientation and magnitude of the Bz component determines, how much energy can be transferred to upper atmosphere/ionosphere - strenght of interactions between magnetic fields gets stronger, the more anti-parallel becomes their orientation. Negative values of IMF Bz allow the connection between IMF and open magnetospheric field lines and energy can be transferred between the mediums. On the other hand, when IMF orientation is parallel to Earth's dipole, open magnetospheric field lines turn into closed ones due to repulsion force of magnetic fields, what cuts out the energy transfer. While Bz component acts for magnetosphere as a gateway which determines density/intensity of electric currents. Bx and By on the other hand define the direction of energy flow and determine how electric potentials are distributed in ionosphere

Next step will be to speak about plasma flow in magnetosphere and to introduce the process, known as flux transfer event (fte). There's a LOT to discuss when it comes to this subject, so for today, I'll just show you a nice example of an fte, which results in a strong plasma outflow

I still didn't even mention about any satellite recordings or weather charts and I already can see, that this single post, is more than enough, to write down 4 to 5 pages of text in a research paper. Considering everything what I still have to discuss in this publication, I should end up with around 20 to 25 pages of raw text and after format + images, possibly around 35 pages a4 (but this is my first research paper, so I can be wrong) - and I wanted to make just a general overview of the model.

To be continued (when time will come)

Last edited:

#### GatheringKnowledge

Because I've created similar threats on many science forums across the internet, I know how many people, that call themselves scientists, think that after college their superior authority allows them to sense super-naturally, if something is a scientific fact or if this guy has no idea, what he's talking about and tries to sell some kind of flat Earth retardation using some random smart-sounding words, which he took from Star Trek... So, before anyone will start to accuse me, that all of this doesn't have nothing to do with mainstream science, better first take a short look on couple of those:

All abstracts
Paper suggests solar magnetic influence on Earth’s atmospheric pressure « JoNova
https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0581:IOSMSS>2.0.CO;2
https://page-one.springer.com/pdf/preview/10.1007/BF01630744
Changes in the geomagnetic field and solar wind — causes of changes of climate and atmospheric circulation
Solar influences on atmospheric circulation
Effects of geomagnetic storms in the lower ionosphere, middle atmosphere and troposphere
Mechanism of solar-terrestrial relations and changes of atmospheric circulation
Regional and temporal variability of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray effects on the lower atmosphere circulation
Weather and the Earth's magnetic field
https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2014/EMS2014-194.pdf
Space weather driven changes in lower atmosphere phenomena
A review of vertical coupling in the Atmosphere–Ionosphere system: Effects of waves, sudden stratospheric warmings, space weather, and of solar activity
Solar forcing of the terrestrial atmosphere
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rsta.2002.1091
Review of electromagnetic coupling between the Earth's atmosphere and the space environment
Overview of Solar Wind–Magnetosphere–Ionosphere–Atmosphere Coupling and the Generation of Magnetospheric Currents
Geomagnetic forcing of changes in climate and in the atmospheric circulation
Is there a link between Earth's magnetic field and low-latitude precipitation? | Geology | GeoScienceWorld

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304532080_The_whole-atmosphere_response_to_changes_in_the_Earth's_magnetic_field_from_1900_to_2000_an_example_of_top-down_vertical_coupling_Magnetic_field_effects_on_the_atmosphere

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257833604_Role_of_atmospheric_circulation_in_the_baric_field_response_to_the_Earth's_crossing_of_the_interplanetary_magnetic_field_sector_boundaries

Solar Activity and Earth's Climate

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19730022041.pdf
ESA Science & Technology - The curious case of Earth's leaking atmosphere
Our protective shield
Swarm reveals Earth’s changing magnetism

I can't promise, if every link will become a source in my yet to come research paper, but most of them probably will. I don't need any title or certificate, to know, that you don't learn such things in college. I spoke with many scientists and some of them were specialized in plasma physics. If I could pick a person, that for me is has actual authority and is able to give me a completely satysfying opinion about this model, it would be someone like Vassilis Angelopoulos or Nikolai Tsyganenko... Sadly, those people are for some reason strangely afraid, to speak with me... I would love to speak with people, who in those fields know more, than I do...

Last edited:

#### studiot

Members wishing to read some background to this might like to look at

The Spinning Magnet
by
Alanna Mitchell

Aurora
by
Melanie Windridge

#### GatheringKnowledge

Merry Christmas!
Today I wanted to prove, that Santa can easily get to all children in time, as he feeds his deers with high energy protons and uses geomagnetic field as electromagnetic highway. But instead I decided, that today I will be honest, while trying to be serious... You see, one of the main reasons (or maybe the main one), why I'm willing to invest my time efforts and resources into something, what is for me just kind of hobby, is because I want to speak with people, who can teach me, how to do things like this:

I went pretty far in this journey just by myself and without any help from other people, but there are some limits to computing power of my brain. The sad truth is, that while I don't have bigger problems to learn, how to use a computer software (and I know, how to use quite a lot of them), I'm failing completely, when it comes to writing somekind of a code or even properly compiling existing scripts, to make them work on my PC. I've learned to judge my own capabilities. I know, that without any guide of a living tutor, it would take me at least couple years of an intense self-intercourse, to learn, how to run a MHD simulation of magnetosphere in Fortran or Matlab - and I just don't feel the inspiration to learn those things, when I imagine, how much time and effort it would probably take.

This is why, I figured out, that it would be better, to simply find a person, who already has the necessary knowledge and experience and who would agree to:
- become my teacher, tutor or promotor
- become a co-author of this paper
- help as much as possible for the bright future of science
In any case, I'll listen to any proporsal and appreciate any help

But let me also try this way:
Are there among those who read this thread, any people who know, how to create/modify code in a java applet? Today you have the chance, to give a christmas gift to entire humanity, through science. World doesn't need your money - all it needs, is your knowledge. There's something, what can turn my life (at least for now) into an endless string of intelectual pleasure and what doesn't require me to have my own super-computer in NASA together with 10 ppl of personel. As much, as I know and understand java (at least, when it comes to using it) I guess, that for someone, who has some real practice, it shouldn't be THAT much of a problem, to modify the code in java app from the site below and make the Earth a better place to live for all those, who through science are seeking for the wisdom and who don't care about a career, as a scientist.

Everything in this 3D visualisation is working 100% fine, except of one tiny detail - input data is constant and there's no way to modify it manually, without changing the code. To get things better, you can find there links to the simulation code, and to necessary java libraries. Normally, Tsyganenko Magnetosphere simulation is using data, which is recorded by such satellites, as: ACE, DSCVR, Wind, SOHO or even STEREO. This data includes all parameters of solar wind plasma and local IMF (here without Bx ) - just look at the graph from my previous post. But what matters at most, is the fact, that entire necessary input data for the MHD simulation, is avaliable almost in real-time here: SPDF - OMNIWeb Service
In fact, everything comes down to changing the code of simulation and make it to update the values of input data from ftp adress, every 5m or so. I wouldn't dare to ask about anything worse, than that. And don't tell me, that it's actually a big problem for someome with knwledge - I don't know, how to code, but I'm not stupid... And even if your time is really too precious, to be wasted on some unknown science project, that won't give you any profit not even fame alone, you can just point your wise man's finger, to some other people, who might listen to ignorant peasant, who think that they can know something about real science, without being a scientist...

But if any one will ask, how all of this might be good for science, let me give you a real life example. Below are 2 animations, which show the most important processes in mechanism of my model - magnetic reconnection (above) and fte followed by plasma outflow (below}

You see, if couple years ago similar results would be avaliable in real-time and represented in a 3D environment, where the fieldlines "stick out" from shaded and textured globe, then someone with proper knowledge would most likely figure out eventually, that when we compare the 3D simulation to satellite imagery, all those masses of clouds will seem to pretty much spin around magnetic field lines - so physicists would got in the right time, a chance to say: "But of course... It's exactly just as we predicted! We just didn't speak about it earlier, because we needed better computers, to understand the process better"...

And how about now? Is it still almost too late or is it too late already for the science, to fight back for the sake of all scientists honour? It will probably take some time, until I finish writing my yet to publish paper, so physicists still might possibly reach the finish line before me. I don't say anything, what no one wouldn't know already - all I do, is to gather all the pieces together and fit them to eachother in the most logical way. After I've learned what fte is, one of the first questions, which I've asked myself, was: "Yikes! It looks nasty. Hmm, I wonder if this might have some impact on weather and climate..." - so, please tell me now: does it mean that i'm a genius of physics or does it mean, that as a group of people, physicists are generally so stupid, that they won't never ask loudly the most obvious question, because some other scientist might find it stupid? And there are possibilities, that look for scientists even worse...

Sorry I got carried away again... It's Christmas! Praise the birth of Sun, just like our ancestors did thousands years before - and while the reason, to celebrate was then apparently completely different, I think however, that the true meaning of anything doesn't simpy apply to subjective reasons... Peace!

Last edited: