Inertial Frame and Non Inertial Frame

Oct 2019
1
0
Hello everyone I have 2 Questions for you. Thank you for your all answer.
1) Can we say that a nonrotating frame with its origin at the center of the earth (earth-centered frame) is inertial, even though the earth is accelerating and rotating?
2) Can we say that a nonrotating frame with its origin at a point on the surface of the earth (earth-fixed frame) is inertial, even though the earth is accelerating and rotating?
 
Jun 2016
1,142
514
England
Strictly speaking no to both.
However the acceleration due to the rotating earth is small enough to allow it to approximated as an inertial frame for most purposes.
 
Oct 2017
530
250
Glasgow
Just to add to Woody's answer:

1) Can we say that a nonrotating frame with its origin at the center of the earth (earth-centered frame) is inertial, even though the earth is accelerating and rotating?
No. The key point is that the Earth is accelerating towards the Sun, keeping it in orbit around it, making the frame non-inertial. The fact that the Earth is rotating is not important; if the Earth was rotating but the acceleration was zero, it would be an inertial frame.

The effects of the non-inertial frame are very small. If you were talking about Mercury instead, then you'll find that the effects are much larger. The orbit of Mercury requires GR to fully explain.

2) Can we say that a nonrotating frame with its origin at a point on the surface of the earth (earth-fixed frame) is inertial, even though the earth is accelerating and rotating?
No. The rotation has the most impact on the physics you'll need to use in your frame to explain the motion of everything around you.