snell

1. snell's law and variational calculus

Working through some exercises on Variational Calculus from Taylor's Classical Mechanics. I'm not entirely sure how to set this up. I had a look at past post "http://physicshelpforum.com/advanced-optics/10876-does-fermat-principle-explain-refraction-inside-water.html" but the problem...
2. Is Snell's law of refraction a derived ?

one or an emperical one? Can you help me find it derivation,
3. More Snell's Law

During a training exercise, two British Navy officers used special equipment to escape from a submarine at a depth of 183m. Suppose that at a depth of 97m one of the officers shines a laser light toward the water's surface at an angle of incidence of 25 degrees. The light passes through the...
4. Refraction and Snell's Law

Part 1: The greatest recorded thickness of ice is 4.78 km. It was measured in Antarctica by using the reflection of radio waves. Suppose visible light could be used as well as radio waves. If the light enters the ice with an angle of incidence of 33 degrees, reflects from the bottom of the ice...