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Old Jul 10th 2018, 09:44 AM   #1
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X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge

Declarations:
This X4 model of unit electrical charge is established in X4 theory and contains some guess of its own. Anybody shall not try to relate other similar theory to it.
The major purpose of this model is to explore the logical relationship between chirality, space and charge, anybody should just ignore it if he (or she) feel it inappropriate or incomplete.
X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge

Lets see the unit step function:
μ(t) = 0 (t<0) μ(t) = 1 (t>0)
It could be interpreted here as below:
Because t<0 meaningless, so the signal or the state of matter does not exist.
When t>0, the signal or the state of matter exist.
Next, play a mathematical game of anti..
With Fourier transformation (detailed calculation omitted), we got:

1 = (1/2) + (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/ω)sinωt dω
Then, replace variants, we got:
1 = (1/2) + (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX
Namely:
1 = (1/2) + (1/2) = (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX + (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX ①
And so on, we got:
-1 = -[(1/2) + (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX]
= (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/-X)sin(-X)P d(-X)+ (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/-X)sin(-X)P d(-X)
If we take X1 = -X, then
-1 = (-1/2) + (-1/2) = [-(1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X1)sinX1P dX1] + [-(1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X1)sinX1P dX1] ②
And so on, we got:
0 = (1/2) + (-1/2) = (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX +[- (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X1)sinX1P dX1 ] ③
Next, lets analyze the characteristics of equation①②③
⑴ In macro, its a scalar constant.
⑵ In micro, it has something to do with space.
⑶ The value of the constant inverts follow suit the inversion of space. And there is a case of neutrality.
⑷ According to the replacement of variant, P>0,and could be regarded as the length of momentum.
According to the integration area, X>0, and could be regarded as the distance of space point to the origin of coordinate system.
And(1/X)sinXP could be regarded as the space part of a wave function in triangular form. If we see it wave function in momentum space, φ(P) =(1/X)sinXP , it represents a wave function distribution field adjacent to the origin of coordinate system.
And (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX represents the comprehensive result of the field.
And the situation of X1 is the same.
We see that equation①②③ are very similar in nature to one physical quantity, its electrical charge.
Next, we just use them as the mathematical model for unit electrical charge (+e or e) and electrical neutrality and analyze them a further step. We got:
(A) Unit electrical charge has deeper cause in it. The deeper structure of matter could be called layer here. The electrical charge of such layer is + (1/2)e or - (1/2)e, simple equivalent to (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X)sinXP dX or - (1/π)∫0→+∞(1/X1)sinX1P dX1. Value inverted follow suit the inversion of space.
(B) Because the two wave function distribution fields:
(1/X)sinXP and(1/X)sinXP in case of equation①,
(1/X1)sinX1P and(1/X1)sinX1P in case of equation②,
(1/X)sinXP and (1/X1)sinX1P in case of equation③,
Have the same origin of coordinate system in the respective case, and because only one direction is analyzed here, in fact, all direction should be the same situation,
So, the ideal Geometrical shape of layers in any case of equation①②③ should be concentric circle kind in any normal cutting plane of a sphere.
(C) Layers in any case of equation①②③ might be the two aspects of one thing naturally.
(D) We cant exclude a very special case:there is a kind of layer which has no space inversion effect( namely 0 = 0 + 0). Of course, it will be electrical neutral.
Next, analyze what specific physical structure could realize the conditions mentioned above from (A) to (D).
We think about circle kind of electromagnetic standing wave in any normal cutting plane of a sphere.
Its two aspects (two travelling waves go in opposite direction) of one thing (the standing wave).
And we got the important character of layer: layers which construct a basic particle could not be separated by means of collision. No alone layer exist in nature.
We check out the ordinary standing wave function:
Y =(2Acos2πx/λ)cos2πγt
It has no space inversion effect.
We consider the track of the standing wave:
If the track is a smooth circle, its shape is too simple. Look at a smooth circle in the XY plane. The parametric equation is :
X = r cosθ Y = r sinθ
If space inverted θ= -θ1, then:
X = r cosθ1 Y = - r sinθ1
Thats another smooth circle in the XY plane which derived from reflection of the original circle against X axis. In fact, they are copy. No, space inversion effect. We put it aside temporarily.
If the track is a helical line, it has chirality(called natural identification of space here).
Look at the parametric equation of a helical line:
X = r cosθ Y = r sinθ Z = kθ
If space inverted θ= -θ1, then:
X = r cosθ1 Y = - r sinθ1 Z = - kθ1
The chirality inverted.
Then the specific physical forms of that circle kind standing wave could be:
(Ⅰ) Superposition of two right hand helical circle kind travelling waves go in opposite direction, namely, Superposition of two right hand layers.
(Ⅱ) Superposition of two left hand helical circle kind travelling waves go in opposite direction, namely, Superposition of two left hand layers.
(Ⅲ) Superposition of one right hand helical circle kind travelling wave and one left hand helical circle kind travelling wave go in opposite direction, namely, Superposition of one right hand and one left hand layers.
If we artificially define situation(Ⅰ) as basic particle with positive unit electrical charge, then, situation (Ⅱ) would be basic anti particle with negative unit electrical charge. Situation(Ⅲ) would be basic neutral particle with electrical neutrality.
Now, consider the track of a smooth circle mentioned above again. It would be:
(Ⅳ) Superposition of two circular travelling waves go in opposite direction, namely, Superposition of two neutral layers. It would also be basic neutral particle with electrical neutrality.
At this moment, we can talk about the micro standard for the determination of some X4 states:
If we define basic particle made up of two right hand layers as in the state of X4 = +1, then, basic particle made up of two left hand layers will be in the state of X4 = -1, namely, the anti particle. Basic particle made up of one right hand layer and one left hand layer will be in the superposition states of
X4 = +1 and X4 = -1. Basic particle made up of two neutral layers is in the state of X4 = +1 or X4 = -1, which means its anti state is itself.
And so on, the micro standard principle is also applicable to the determination of the states of X4 = 2,3,4,5n and their counter part X4 = - 2,-3,-4,-5-n.
Watch the context in counter way, it appears that the chirality of layer determines space. Inversion of
the chirality of layer leads to the inversion of space. Inversion of space leads to the inversion of unit electrical charge.
Note:
Maybe, equation①②③ is not necessarily the accurate-enough equations to describe the real wave function distribution fields of basic particles, but it still can demonstrate some and has no contradiction to facts:
1. Under such a model, unit electrical (charge) interaction between basic particles will be just the determination of probability method of existence each other, and only has something to do with distance (∝1/X).
2.Since the value of P does not affect the result of integration in equation①②③, that means the relative motion of basic particles do not affect the volume of unit electrical charge.


Chen Li Qiang
July, 2018


Additions:
Below are some predictions based on the above article:
1. When the circle kind standing wave mentioned in the above context broken, it will transform into a kind of released photon. So, the flying track of leased photon in flat space should have three types: straight line, straight right hand helical line, straight left hand helical line.
2. In micro, the anti photon of a released photon is itself in case of straight line track. But in case of straight helical track, the anti photon of a released photon is its counter part with inverted chirality. In macro, namely, in respect of spacetime effect, they are all the same and in the state of X4 =∞.

Chen Li Qiang
July, 2018
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Old Jul 10th 2018, 11:27 AM   #2
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There was a reason I closed the other thread. You weren't listening to members who were trying to help you understand that "X4" is a botched idea. I'll let you work this thread for a bit but you need to listen and try to apply suggestions that other members are giving.

Personally I feel that your hypothesis (not a theory!) is garbage but we'll see for now.

This is the only warning you are going to get.

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Old Jul 10th 2018, 11:30 AM   #3
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Do you even know what the word "chiral" means? It has nothing to do with electric charge.

Maybe we should start here. What do you know about chiral states? Do you know about weak field theory in QM?

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Old Jul 11th 2018, 10:36 AM   #4
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Originally Posted by htam9876 View Post
Declarations:
This X4 model of unit electrical charge is established in X4 theory and contains some guess of its own.
Okay...

So what exactly is it you want us to do with your big wall of text?
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Old Jul 11th 2018, 09:43 PM   #5
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I'm always willing to learn ....

What exactly is " the X4 model of unit electrical charge" ???

A search draws a blank

"Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superimposable on its mirror image..."

Last edited by oz93666; Jul 11th 2018 at 09:45 PM.
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Old Jul 12th 2018, 04:15 AM   #6
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Hi Oz,

You won't find the X4 model in a general search,
because it is a personal project that Chen Li Qiang is working on.

Personally I initially ploughed through his lengthy posts,
but found nothing I could latch onto.
Having spent some time trying (unsuccessfully) to try to understand his ideas,
I have now given up.

Good luck to you if you want to persevere.
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Old Jul 25th 2018, 07:31 AM   #7
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X4 theory of photon 3

X4 Theory of Photon Ⅲ
(The Mass Space)

First I ask a question, why the energy equation for a released photon is E = hγ in Quantum and need not to take the number of crests(n of λ, here n is a natural number) and the margin E0 into account?
There might be saying that the classical electromagnetism is not suitable to calculate the microscopic energy. For this sake, we put E0 aside. But a released photon is just that of a section of electrical wave, its energy E should ∝the number of crests(n of λ) no matter what method is used to calculate.
It implys that all released photons have the same number of crests(n of λ)? Temporarily suppose it is and see what will happen.
Next, we refer to the article X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge and play a game of Geometry.
We unfold the standing wave, namely make its radius R→∞, and it turns into two released photons.(notice please, its only a game of Geometry, not the real physical course of transformation)
We watch the game in counter way, its two released photons turn into a standing wave.
And we got: standing wave which constitute all kinds of basic particles have the same number of crests(nt of λt when referring to travelling waves, and ns of λs when referring to standing waves. The lower index t means travelling wave and s means standing wave in this context)
We talk about space at this moment. Space should be the physical subordinate of matter. No space exist without matter.
We turn to SR temporarily (detailed calculation omitted below).
According to the length contract effect and the mass-speed equation, we got:
L/L = M0/M
This could be called the mass- space equation. It means the space concept people custom to is induced by mass. Its called the Mass Space here (Mspace). And Mspace ∝ 1/M.
Next, we try to use the basic particle model in the article X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge and the temporary conclusion of same number of crests in this article to calculate the radius of basic particle.
Below, we calculate the central line of the helical track of layer instead of the helical track itself because the speed of light should be calculated on the central line. And the wavelengthλt should be the projective wavelength on the central line.
E = MC = 2hγt = 2hC/λt then:
λt = 2h/MC then:
The radius of basic particle is :
R = ntλt/2π = nth/πCM
Because nt, h, π,C are all constants, we use a constant a for simplicity and a = nth/πC, then:
R = a/M
Namely, R∝1/M. In fact, its the same meaning as Mspace ∝ 1/M in SR above.

Next compare it with experimental results (all data quoted below are gathered in the internet. Thanks to those publisher here.)
The radius of proton is Rp ≈ 8.410-16 m, and the mass Mp ≈ 1.672610-27 kg.
The radius of neutron is Rn ≈ 8.010-16 m, and the mass Mn ≈ 1.674910-27 kg.
Rp/ Rn ≈ 1.05 Mn/ Mp ≈ 1.001
Basically able to reflect the relationship of R or(Mspace )∝ 1/M.
The data about the radius of electron is much different with sources. The data published by Klurer Academic 1992 is Re ≈ 4-710-13 m. The mass of electron is almost the same, Me ≈ 9.110-31 kg.
Re/ Rp ≈ 0.48-0.8103 Mp/ Me ≈ 1.8103
Also basically able to reflect the relationship of R or(Mspace )∝ 1/M.
According to the basic particle model in the article X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge and the concept of Mspace and the temporary conclusion of same number of crests in this article, the radius of basic particle is not fixed. It might change follow suit the mass (or energy) of that particle.
Claim: In fact, X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge is the first part of X4 Theory of Photon Ⅲ.
(To be continued)

Chen Li Qiang
July,2018
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File Type: doc X4 Theory of Photon 3.doc (38.0 KB, 1 views)
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Old Jul 25th 2018, 08:03 AM   #8
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Originally Posted by htam9876 View Post
X4 Theory of Photon Ⅲ
(The Mass Space)

First I ask a question, why the energy equation for a released photon is E = hγ in Quantum and need not to take the number of crests(n of λ, here n is a natural number) and the margin E0 into account?
Why should it?

There might be saying that the classical electromagnetism is not suitable to calculate the microscopic energy.
Yes. But this is because of the observed phenomena, such as the ultraviolet catastrophe. Classical EM simply cannot accurately describe the observations of radiation from atoms. This is one of a number of reasons why QM is needed.

For this sake, we put E0 aside. But a released photon is just that of a section of electrical wave, its energy E should ∝the number of crests(n of λ) no matter what method is used to calculate.
The old classical theories of atomic radiation predicted that the energy content of a wave was associated with the amplitude. Observations show it is not. Those theories cannot adequately explain atomic radiation and never will.

It implys that all released photons have the same number of crests(n of λ)?
Who cares about the number of crests of light wave?

Temporarily suppose it is and see what will happen.
Next, we refer to the article X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge and play a game of Geometry.
We unfold the standing wave, namely make its radius R→∞,
What do you mean by "radius of a standing wave"? Do you mean wavelength? If so, as the wavelength tends to infinity, it's energy tends towards 0 because

$\displaystyle E = \frac{hc}{\lambda}$

If you mean amplitude, its energy won't change.

and it turns into two released photons.(notice please, it’s only a game of Geometry, not the real physical course of transformation)
We watch the game in counter way, it’s two released photons turn into a standing wave.
This makes no sense at all.

And we got: standing wave which constitute all kinds of basic particles have the same number of crests(nt of λt when referring to travelling waves, and ns of λs when referring to standing waves. The lower index t means travelling wave and s means standing wave in this context)
This makes no sense.

We talk about space at this moment. Space should be the physical subordinate of matter. No space exist without matter.
Why should "space be a physical subordinate of matter"? What does that even mean?

There's also plenty of space without matter in it. Why make this up?

We turn to SR temporarily (detailed calculation omitted below).
According to the length contract effect and the mass-speed equation, we got:
L’/L = M0/M
This could be called the mass- space equation. It means the space concept people custom to is induced by mass. It’s called the Mass Space here (Mspace). And Mspace ∝ 1/M.
Next, we try to use the basic particle model in the article X4 Model of Unit Electrical Charge and the temporary conclusion of same number of crests in this article to calculate the radius of basic particle.
By "radius of particle", do you mean the nucleon radius? Do you mean the orbital radius of a s-orbital electron? Leptons don't even have size, so what do you mean?

Last edited by benit13; Jul 25th 2018 at 10:09 AM.
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Old Jul 25th 2018, 09:53 AM   #9
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Old Jul 25th 2018, 10:24 AM   #10
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Well, I guess that clears everything up. You still haven't listened to a single word that's been said.

Thread closed.

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