**Optics** Fresnel (1818) establishes the wave theory of light by describing diffraction using wave interference (Fresnel, section 80) but the elastic fluid that forms Fresnel’s wave interference does not physically exist since the diffraction effect forms in vacuum that is void of matter which is experimental proof that wave interference is physically invalid. Maxwell (1864) states electromagnetic radiation is formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter (Maxwell, intro), but the ether does not physically exist since light propagates in vacuum that is void of matter (solid, liquid or gas) which his experimental proof that Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory is physically invalid. The electromagnetic curl equations, of Maxwell’s equations, are used to represent the physical structure of light but the electromagnetic curl equations are derived using induction yet light is not formed by induction which is experimental proof that the electromagnetic curl equations are physically invalid. The energy of a wave is dependent on the amplitude and frequency yet Lenard’s photoelectric effect (1899) proves light energy is dependent on **only** the frequency. Lenard’s photoelectric effect is experimental proof the wave theory of light is physically invalid. Planck and Einstein derive energy equations that are dependent on only the frequency to justify Lenard photoelectric effect but Planck and Einstein use Boltzmann’s thermodynamic entropy equation (Planck, part 1), (Einstein, part 5) but mass-less light particles cannot be represented with gas molecules that have a mass. The derivations of Planck’s energy element, and Einstein’s energy quanta are physically invalid. Einstein electrodynamics (1905) is based on the electromagnetic curl equations (Einstein*, part 6) that are derived using induction yet light is not formed by induction which is experimental proof that Einstein’s electrodynamics (relativity) is physically invalid. A quantum mechanics probability wave (1913) cannot be used to describe the wave effects of light since a probability wave is not a wave structure. A wave structure is formed by the motion of a medium composed of matter. Feynman’s (1950) quantum electrodynamics (QED) uses Maxwell electromagnetic radiation (Feynman, intro) to describe a QED particle structure of light but the ether, composed of matter, that forms Maxwell’s electromagnetic radiation does not physically exist which is experimental proof QED is physically invalid. String theory (1970) describes a wave-particle structure of light yet the energy of an oscillating string is dependent on the amplitude and frequency but Lenard’s photoelectric effect proves light energy is dependent on **only** the frequency which is experimental proof string theory of light is physically invalid. The wave theory of light is based on waves formed by the motion of an ether composed of matter yet light propagates, forms diffraction, and the blackbody radiation effect, in vacuum, that is void matter which is experimental proof light does not form a wave structure or effect. Einstein, Albert. On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light. Annalen der Physik. 17: 132-148. 1905. Einstein*, Albert. On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Annalen der Physik. 17: 891-921. 1905. Feynman, Richard. Mathematical Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic Interaction. Physics Review. 80: 440-457. 1950. Fresnel, Augustin. Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere. French Academy of Science. 1818. Maxwell, James. Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. Royal Society Transactions. Vol. CLV. 1864. Planck, Max. On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum. Annalen der Physik. IV, 4: 553-563. 1901. |