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Old Mar 5th 2018, 10:50 PM   #1
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How do different angle bends in pipes affect flow?

I am currently doing an experiment where a piece of 5mm diameter plastic tubing has different angle bend in it (e.g. 10 degrees, 25 degrees... 90 degrees etc.) and was wondering what equations to use to figure out what affects the rate of flow when water is going through it? Do i use friction, momentum, or things like Bernoulli's principle?
Thanks for any answers.

Last edited by LeftRightGoodnight; Mar 5th 2018 at 11:11 PM.
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Old Mar 5th 2018, 11:29 PM   #2
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I'm not an expert on this , but I'll hazard a guess ...

It must depend on the sharpness of the bend . Suppose you wound your 5mm tube around the outside of a 100mm drain pipe , say 10 meters of tubing round and around tightly packed , so all the tubing was spiral , All 10 meters of it in a gently bend . I don't think it would effect the flow rate too much compared to a strait tube.

I know the blue plastic plumbing fittings come in two styles of right angle bend ,one is very sharp , the other a gentle curve (both change the flow through 90deg) this second one must be to create less resistance to flow.
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Old Mar 6th 2018, 12:29 AM   #3
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Good morning leftrightgoodnight and welcome to PhysicsHelpForums.

I see you mention Bernoulli and momentum so you know some fluid physics, which is good.

There are two effects one involving Bernoulli and one involving momentum.

Firstly the Bernoulli head loss.

All pipes have some friction which is usually measured as a pressure drop per metre or per fitting or per bend. Manufacturers publish tables of such data which is empirical.

This pressure drop is usually recorded as a drop in pressure head and then added in series to the Bernoulli equation used in pressured head format.
This is a bit like resistors in series in an electric circuit or the voltage drop calculations electricians make for wiring.

The second point is momentum.

Yes momentum calculations show that momentum is destroyed at bends and changes of pipe section, resulting in a force on the pipe.
This can cause movement of the pipe or opening of the joints unless the pipework is restrained. Very large pipes have thrust blocks set at bends to oppose this force.
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Last edited by studiot; Mar 6th 2018 at 02:27 AM.
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